What is an IP Address, What are the uses of IP Addresses – Explained and Demystified

If you have ever used the internet, you have unknowingly used IP Addresses. An IP Address or an Internet Protocol Address is a numeric value(numbers)  is a unique number consisting of 4 parts separated by dots, e.g. 202.143.111.157, Every machine that is on the Internet or LAN has a unique IP number if a machine does not have an IP number, it is not really on the Network. Many machines have one or more Domain Names(website name) that correspond to an individual IP number, that are easier for people to remember.

Right now we are using IP version 4(32 bits addressing), however soon the number of addresses will be over and the internet will switch to IP version 6(128 bit addressing), where more addresses can be brought in.

The website myip.com puts it in the simplest way possible, the IP Address is made of 32 binary bits, which is dividable into network and host side with the help of subnetmask.
The 32 bits are divided into 4 octets (1 octets = 8 bits). Each octet is converted to decimal value and is separated ny the dot (.), thats whay the IP is also called as dotted decimal format. The each octate can be ranged from 0 to 255 in decimal format or 00000000 11111111 in binary format.

They are numbers between 0-255 (reason: every section contains 8 bits, 2^8=256 i.e.: 0-255)
for dotted decimal format example is common IP address:  192.168.1.255.

 

The Binary Octetes of the IP Address 192.168.1.255 is:
11000000    10101000    00000001    11111111
32-Bit Binary of the IP 192.168.1.255 is:
11000000101010000000000111111111

 

Now isn’t it tough to remember that number for a website, hence there are Domain Name servers that convert that number to a particular IP Address

The  Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) manages the IP address space allocations globally and delegates five  regional Internet registries (RIRs) to allocate IP address blocks to  local Internet registries (Internet service providers) and other entities.

 

IP Address Classes

IP Address Classes and Their Formats

Since networks vary in size, there are four different address formats or classes to consider when applying to NIC for a network number:

  • Class A addresses are for large networks with many devices.
  • Class B addresses are for medium-sized networks.
  • Class C addresses are for small networks (fewer than 256 devices).
  • Class D addresses are multicast addresses.
  • Class E addresses are unused

The first few bits of each IP address indicate which of the address class formats it is using. The address structures look like this:

 

Also Class E has the first Octet as 1111

Hence the ranges are

1.x.x.x – 127.x.x.x Class A
128.x.x.x – 191.x.x.x Class B
192.x.x.x – 224.x.x.x Class C
225.x.x.x – 239.x.x.x Class D
240.x.x.x – 255.x.x.x Class E

How to find out IP address of a Website and the IP address Class

On windows:

1. Click on Start > Run> Type “Cmd” (without quotes)

2. type “ping facebook.com” (i.e. if you want to find Facebook’s IP address)

3. you will get a number, it can be anything of these
69.63.184.142
69.63.187.17
69.63.187.19
69.63.181.11
69.63.181.12
since Facebook.com has multiple servers

4. now according to the IP Address we can understand that it has a Class A IP address.

You can get more information of the server location and other details by going here and putting the Website address.

 

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Dhawal D

 

 



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